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As he told Discovery News, “It suggests that several segments of the composition were probably not the creation of Hermopolitan theologians, but had rather longer history of transmission before they were chosen to be used as coffin decorations.” The newly found manuscript is a few inches longer than the previous record-holder, an 8-foot long, 2,400-year-old, prenuptial agreement, written on papyrus, which detailed the financial agreements between the families of a soon-to-be-married couple.
The 15 archipelagos of East Polynesia, including New Zealand, Hawaii, and Rapa Nui, were the last habitable places on earth colonized by prehistoric humans.
The timing and pattern of this colonization event has been poorly resolved, with chronologies varying by 1000 y, precluding understanding of cultural change and ecological impacts on these pristine ecosystems. We show that previously supported longer chronologies have relied upon radiocarbon-dated materials with large sources of error, making them unsuitable for precise dating of recent events.
In a meta-analysis of 1,434 radiocarbon dates from the region, reliable short-lived samples reveal that the colonization of East Polynesia occurred in two distinct phases: earliest in the Society Islands A. ∼1025–1120, four centuries later than previously assumed; then after 70–265 y, dispersal continued in one major pulse to all remaining islands A. Our empirically based and dramatically shortened chronology for the colonization of East Polynesia resolves longstanding paradoxes and offers a robust explanation for the remarkable uniformity of East Polynesian culture, human biology, and language.
Red dashed line indicates sum of probability distributions (left axis). 1200 based on the assumption that we have 100% confidence that colonization had occurred by this time; and for the remaining islands with Class 1 dates, this was set to A. The distribution of calibrated age ranges for all classes of radiocarbon dates shows a clear pattern across the entire region (Fig. 1025 to 1520, in contrast to those of Class 2–3 dates, which extend back to 500 B. This pattern reflects the higher precision and accuracy of the reliable targets that make up Class 1 dates (i.e., short-lived materials with SEs and Fig. Using our models, we can show a robust and securely dated two-phase sequence of colonization for East Polynesia: earliest in the Society Islands A. ∼1025–1120, four centuries later than previously assumed, and significantly before (by ∼70–265 y) all but one (Gambier) of the remote island groups with Class 1 dates. This is caused by one date in the Gambier group [Beta-271082: 970 ± 40 BP on carbonized ), leaving initial colonization age ambiguously between that of the central and marginal East Polynesian islands. ∼1200–1253, respectively) but with much larger sets of Class 1 dates. They are also in close agreement with age estimates for initial colonization on the remaining island groups, with Class 1 dates including Line, Southern Cooks, and the sub-Antarctic Auckland Island, which all show remarkably contemporaneous chronologies within radiocarbon dating error (Fig. The unity in timing of human expansion to the most remote islands of East Polynesia (encompassing the triangle made between Hawaii, Rapa Nui, and Auckland Island) is even more extraordinary considering these islands span a vast distance of both longitude and latitude (Fig. Collectively, these results, based on only the most reliable samples, provide a substantially revised pattern of colonization chronology for East Polynesia, which shortens the age for initial colonization in the region by up to 2,000 y, depending on various claims asserted for earlier chronologies (3, 9, 10).
This allows radiocarbon dates, irrespective of stratigraphic context, to be categorized according to accuracy and precision, and for patterns of age and distribution of colonization to be sought accordingly upon the most reliable dated materials.
That makes it one of only seven such manuscripts to have survived to the present day—and the only one on leather; the other six are on papyrus.
While leather was considered a more prestigious material, making it the ideal choice for a religious text, it is much less durable and highly susceptible to damage from Egypt’s dry climate.
On many islands, irreconcilable long and short settlement chronologies coexist that vary by more than 400–1,000 y (4). 600–950 in the central, northern, and eastern archipelagos, and no earlier than A. Subsequent studies using precise AMS dating of short-lived materials alone have generally supported short chronologies (4, 6–8).
These conflicting chronologies preclude establishment of a regional pattern of settlement and hinder our understanding of cultural change and ecological impacts on these island ecosystems. The last systematic analysis of radiocarbon dates from archaeological and paleoecological sites throughout East Polynesia, published 17 y ago, was based on 147 radiocarbon dates (5). However, these chronologies continue to be dismissed by some scholars (9, 10) on hypothetical grounds of missing evidence or archaeological invisibility, and in favor of radiocarbon dates on materials (typically unidentified charcoal with high inbuilt age potential) incapable of providing a precise age for the event being dated.