By the 1990s, the dynamics of the situation changed.

Cancer patients and persons with AIDS fought publicly with the medical research establishment about the long time needed to get approval for and complete research into potential cures for fatal diseases.

Ethical standards also require that researchers not put participants in a situation where they might be at as a result of their participation.

Harm can be defined as both physical and psychological.

No set of standards can possibly anticipate every ethical circumstance.

Furthermore, there needs to be a procedure that assures that researchers will consider all relevant ethical issues in formulating research plans.

But when that treatment or program may have beneficial effects, persons assigned to the no-treatment control may feel their rights to equal access to services are being curtailed.


Almost all research guarantees the participants which essentially means that the participant will remain anonymous throughout the study -- even to the researchers themselves.

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There are a number of key phrases that describe the system of ethical protections that the contemporary social and medical research establishment have created to try to protect better the rights of their research participants.

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